Your genes – your metabolic type?
The intake of nutrients influences our body composition, our weight but also our metabolism, which is also regulated by several biochemical processes that are involved e.g., in energy production from food. Why can the same diet of different people lead to different consequences such as weight loss or weight gain?
Woman Having Diet in the Kitchen by scarletnyt from vecteezy.com
Small genetic differences between people ensure that each of us has an individual digestion and that the same food is metabolized more or less well.
Some people can tolerate a high-fat diet without gaining weight easily whereas an increased fat intake can lead to overweight more easily in others.
Partially, this is explainable due to certain variants of genes, for example SNPs where only one single nuclear base is changed.
A higher fat intake in people carrying a SNP in the FTO gene can lead to an BMI increased by an average of 0.4 kg/m² compared to people without this mutation. Variants of the Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), a stress transmitter-activating gene, is also associated with eating habits. Carrier of the risk SNP show a significantly higher intake of processed food, as well as a higher risk for obesity and stress.
Diagram of a SNP by J Ashes from vecteezy.com
Several SNPs have influence on our metabolism and therefore on the risk of certain diseases. Depending on genetic disposition there are differences in the need of fat, protein, carbs, vitamins, and minerals. These SNPs can only explain a small part of metabolic characteristics. For that reason, it is important to consider epigenetic aspects such as regulation of enzymes through DNA methylation or micro RNAs. They could even predict the success of a weight loss.
With increased knowledge about the interactions between our genes, diet and environmental influences it is possible to divide people into metabolic types. A personalized recommendation of diet and lifestyle, tailored to (epi)genetics helps with weight loss or maintenance and can prevent certain diet-related diseases.
Woman Doing a Balance Diet by zul fikri from vecteezy.com